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Goethals News Bulletin
Goethals Indian Library & Research Society, Kolkata
Vol. XIII No. 2 Bulletin April - June 2010

News Update | Articles | Researchers | New Arrivals | Mails & Emails

We Celebrate this year the Triple Anniversary of Brahmabandhab Upadhyay, Rabindranath Tagore and Mother Teresa

This year happens to be the triple anniversary of three great persons : Brahmabandhab Upadhyay, Rabindranath Tagore and Mother Teresa. All three of them were very close to the Jesuits and St. Xavier's Kolkata. While St. Xavier's College celebrated 150 years of service in Bengal and India, it is Brahmabandhab Upadhyay’s and Rabindranath Tagore’s 150th Birth anniversary and Mother Teresa’s centenary. Among three, two of them received the Nobel Prize: Rabindranath Tagore for Literature in 1913 and Mother Teresa for Peace in 1979.

Brahmabandhab Upadhyay
Born - February 1, 1861
Died -October 27, 1907

“Brahmabandhab Upadyay was a Roman Catholic ascetic yet a Vedantin - spirited, fearless, self-denying, learned and uncommonly influential". - Rabindranath Tagore

"Brahmabandhab and Animananda came to Calcutta (1900) and opened a school in Simla Street. The idea was to revive the ancient ideal of "acharya" and "shisya" the preceptor and the pupil. The boys sat on mats; the teacher on a separate seat before them. The boys paid no fees; the teachers received no salaries; knowledge could not be sold. Animananda was the mainstay.

One morning a carriage stopped at the door of the school. Out came Upadhyay with a tall, princely figure. The boys took the dust of their feet; recited a few pieces and answered the questions of the guest. The noble visitor was none other than Rabindranath Tagore, who even then was hailed by Upadhyay as the "World Poet of Bengal." The poet was highly pleased. Later on, it was learned that Upadhyay accompanied the poet to Santiniketan. As yet there was no institution: the vast fields, huge sal trees and the quiet abode captivated him. It was decided that the School of Simla Street would be transferred to Santiniketan to form an Ashram. Animananda did not like the idea of going to Bolepur, as that would mean missing his daily Mass which he prized above the whole world. But on Upadhyay's insisting, he agreed on condition that he would be allowed to come down to Calcutta, every Sunday, to attend Holy Mass.


The beginning of Shantiniketan

The boys of Simla Street School - some twelve - with Animananda as their teacher, were shifted to Bolepur, where they were joined by Rothin and Shomy, the two princes of the Tagore family. Rabi babu was there to receive them. The generous welcome of the poet, and the free atmosphere which he created, removed all hesitancy and Animananda put his heart and soul into the work. Dr. Tagore was called by Upadhyay the GURUDEV.

This wonderful collaboration of a poet and a philosopher was not meant to last. It came to an abrupt end after about seven months, (December 1901 - ­August 1902), and the reasons of it, have been a matter of keen dispute.”

Brahmabandhab was very close to the Jesuits of St. Xavier's College and sought guidance from them.


Rabindranath Tagore
Born- May 7, 1861
Died - August 7, 1941

Rabindranath Tagore studied in St. Xavier's School, though he was in the school for a short period of time he revered Fr. Peneranda and appreciated the academic atmosphere of St. Xavier's. In 1927 Rabindranath Tagore visited St. Xavier's and presented a gift, a bust of Jesus Christ which is preserved till date in the College Principal's office. Rabindranath Tagore was instrumental in organizing the Old Boy's Association of St. Xavier's. In 1929 he was elected one of the Vice-President of the Association.


Mother Teresa
Born - August 26, 1910
Died - September 5, 1997
The association of the Jesuits with Mother Teresa goes back to the days when Mother was a member of the Institution of the Blessed Virgin Mary (IBVM), a religious congregation for women founded after the pattern of the Society of Jesus. The then Superior General of the Jesuits Fr. E. Mercurian, helped in defining the institute's spirituality. He gave them the unrestricted use of the Ignition Constitutions with permission to change the textual wording from 'he' to 'she'. By virtue of her having been a Loreto nun, the Constitutions of St. Ignatius and his spiritual exercises have had great influence on Mother's spirituality and life.

Mother Teresa had habitually preferred Jesuits as retreat preachers, spiritual directors and confessors for herself and her Sisters. Many Jesuits of Calcutta Province were in close contact with Mother Teresa. They include Archbishop Ferdinand Perier, Cardinal Trevor L. Picachy, Frs. C. Van Exem, Julian Henry, Joseph Sanders, Edouard Le Joly, Camille Bouche, Anton Gabric, Jose Cukale, Josef Neuner, Lawrence Abello, Carl Dincher, Albert Huart, Moyeson, Jambrekovic, McGuiire, and Travers-Ball. Most of these Jesuits were Belgians who had made, like Mother Teresa, Kolkata their home.

Fr. Celest Van Exem was the earliest main adviser and supporter to Mother Teresa and for the foundations of the Missionaries of Charity, right from her days as Loreto Sister. He was the spiritual director to whom Mother Teresa confided her inspiration and who first sought to discern the authenticity of her experiences. He was the first to support Mother in requesting Archbishop Perier to begin the process for her to leave the Loreto Congregation. He made major contributions to the writing of the Constitutions of the Missionaries of Charity. From the time of the foundation of the Congregation until his illness in the 1980s, he was a confessor and instructor of the novices. A few days before his death, he wrote to Mother Teresa, herself critically ill, that he had offered his life to God in exchange for hers and for her mission to China (which did not materialize).

Archbishop Ferdinand Perier, Archbishop of Calcutta, who cautiously approved the foundation of Missionaries of Charity, was the immediate one to whom Mother Teresa had to apply to leave the Loreto Congregation. He was her confidant and spiritual guide, as well as her Superior until she became Superior General of the new Congregation. He was the only Bishop who knew Mother from the time she arrived in India in 1929. Mother had an extraordinary, childlike confidence in the Archbishop as the spokesperson of God's will. In turn, he guided her with a truly extraordinary wisdom and prudence.

Fr. Julian Henry was a spiritual friend and close cooperator of Mother already from her days as Loreto sister. In 1949, as parish priest of St. Teresa's Church, he was the first to help Mother Teresa in her new apostolate, offering her a place to pray, rest and to run a dispensary. Before Mother had Sisters as companions, Fr. Henry used to send girls to accompany her. The Sisters of the first group to join Mother Teresa are grateful to Fr. Henry for all that he did in the early days to assist their apostolate, including the teaching of slum children to do carpentry.

Fr. Edouard Le Joly, right from the beginning and for many years, was giving instructions to the M.C. Novices. He had frequent contacts and dialogues with Mother. He has written many books on Mother. His books have been translated into at least 25 languages.

Cardinal Trevor L. Picachy was spiritual guide, confidant, confessor and retreat director to MC Sisters.

Fr. Camille Bouche took over from Fr. Le Joly. Mother had tremendous trust in Fr. Bouche. She took him to address the young sisters. He was one of the confessors of the novices, homilist and a spiritual guide. Fr. Anton Gabric, a Yogoslavian Jesuit missionary in 24 parghanas, was parish priest at Basanti. He persuaded Mother to open centers in rural areas.

Fr. Carl Dincher was a retreat preacher and a consultant. Fr. Lawrence Abello was one of the spiritual guides and confessors, homilist and consultant. During the last 11 years of her life he answered some of her correspondence requiring philosophical or theological explanations and helped her to write some of her speeches, especially the one she delivered at the prayer breakfast in Washington D.C., for U.S. Government officials. This speech was translated into several languages and, for the first time, expressed, in Mother's simple but transparent style of speaking the reason why contraception is evil. Fr. Albert Huart was retreat director, one of the confessors and spiritual guide.

Many more Jesuits had frequented friendly contacts with her, giving retreats and talks, being confessors in Mother house and rendering other services.

Fr. Felix Raj, State Adviser of AICUF had, on many occasions, brought Mother Teresa in touch with Calcutta youth. “She was always inspiring and every time she met the youth, she had a message for them. Whenever I invited her for youth programmes, she never said 'NO'.”

Fr. Raj narrated: "One day I went to celebrate Mass at Mother House. Mother usually sat next to the Chapel entrance. As I entered the Chapel, she stretched out her hand and touched my feet. I was taken aback and withdrew a little. She looked at me and shook her head to say "No". Later in the Sacristy she told me, "Priests are Christ's representatives for me. I respect them and seek their blessings for me and for my work". Fr. Raj added, “Whenever Mother was invited by the All India Catholic University Federation (AICUF), she never refused. She was always there as a source of inspiration and support. She always carried a message of love and service for the youth. The youth liked her and were drawn by her charism”.


Books on Mother Teresa

A Simple Path Teresa, Mother/ Vardey, Lucinda (Com)/ Mother Teresa/ Vardey, Lucinda Ballantine Trade, 1996.
Faith and Compassion : The Life and Work of Mother Teresa Rai, Raghu/ Chawla, Navin, 1996.
Joy in Loving : A Guide to Daily Living With Mother Teresa Teresa, Mother/ Chaliha, Jaya (Com)/ Le Joly, Edward (Com), 1997.
Loving Jesus By Teresa, Mother/ Gonzalez-Balado, Jose Luis (Edt) Servant Publications, 1991.
Mahatma Gandhi, Mother Teresa, Swami Vivekananda and Some Important Events of India from 1941 to March 1995 Majumdar, Saroj Kanti South Asia Books, 1996.
Meditations From A Simple Path Mother Teresa/ Vardey, Lucinda BALL, 1996.
Mother Teresa (Peacemakers) By Lazo, Caroline Dillon Pr (children´s book), 1993.
Mother Teresa : A Life in Pictures By (Pht) PUBLISHER: CATEGORY: : Biography PUB DATE: Royle, Roger/ Woods, Gary Harpercollins, 1992.
Mother Teresa : A Life of Charity (Junior World Biographies) Pond, Mildred M. CHEL, 1991.
Mother Teresa : A Simple Path Vardey, Lucinda (Com)THOP, 1996.
Mother Teresa : A Woman in Love Le Joly, Edward Ave Maria Pr, 1993.
Mother Teresa : Helping the Poor (Gateway Biographies) Jacobs, William Jay Houghton Mifflin Co, 1992.
Mother Teresa : Her Life, Her Works Gjergji, Lusch New City Pr, 1991.
Mother Teresa : Sister to the Poor Giff, Patricia Reilly Demco Media (Children's Books), 1987.
Mother Teresa : The Joy in Loving : Selected Passages Chaliha, Jaya (Com)/ Joly, Edward Le (Com), 1997.
Mother Teresa : The Woman Who Served God With Her Hands (Heroes of Faith and Courage) Alex, Ben Victor Books, 1995.
Mother Teresa By Chawla, Navin, 1996.
My Life for the Poor : Mother Teresa of Calcutta Teresa, Mother Ballantine Books, 1996.
One Heart Full of Love Mother Teresa Servant Pubns, 1988.
Seeking the Heart of God : Reflections on Prayer Teresa, Mother/ Roger, Brother Harpercollins, 1993.
Something Beautiful for God : Mother Teresa of Calcutta Muggeridge, Malcolm HRSF, 1985.
The Best Gift Is Love : Meditations by Mother Teresa Teresa, Mother/ Lovett, Sean-Patrick (Edt) Servant Pubns, 1993.
The Blessings Of Love Teresa, Mother/ Sabbag, Nancy (Edt), 1996.
The Young Life of Mother Teresa of Calcutta, Mohan, Claire, J. Young Sparrow Press, 1996.
Works of Love Are Works of Peace : Mother Teresa of Calcutta and the Missionaries of Charity Collopy, Michael/ Collopy, Michael (Pht)/ Teresa IGNA, 1996.


Brahmabandhab Upadhyay

Brahmabandhab Upadhyay (born Bhabanicaran Bandyopadhyay) was a complicated, rebellious, and seemingly contradictory man in a turbulent period of colonial Bengali history. Fired from an early age with a patriotic zeal for freeing his country from the British, at age seventeen he decided not to complete his education or to marry but to devote himself to the struggle for independence as a celibate journalist. In time, as a young adult, he became increasingly attracted to the Brahmo teachings of Kesabcandra Sen. Partly through the influence of Kesab's devotional theism, he then developed a fervent love for Jesus, which eventuated in his conversion to Roman Catholicism in the mid-1890s.

Taking the saffron robes of a Hindu renouncer, going barefoot and wearing a cross, he adopted the name Brahmabanbhab, a Bengali translation of Theophilus, or Friend of God, and changed his last name from Bandyopadhyay (Venerated Teacher) to the simpler Upadhyay (Teacher). After beginning his early theological life as a Christian by attacking Brahmoism, neo-Vedanta, the Arya Samaj, Theosophy, and ideas of karma, rebirth, and polytheism, after 1897 he made an abrupt change and began to use the very concepts which he had just repudiated, but in the service of Christian teaching: Advaita Vedanta became a bridge on which he hoped to help Hindus make the journey to Catholic faith. Once again, after 1905, his writing veered away in unexpected directions; increasingly critical of British attitudes and imperialism.

Brahmabandhab claimed in his English writings that Vedanta was superior to neo-Thomism as a vehicle for teaching Christianity in the Indian context, and in his Bengali essays embraced the charter of the so-called Extremists, exhorting Hindus to view their country as the Motherland and to revere the example of the martial Krishna. In 1907 he underwent a prayascitta ceremony for readmittance into Hindu society, but died in 1908 with "Oh Thakur!," the Bengali Christian name for God, on his lips.

Writing a historically and theologically sensitive biography of such a complex a person requires multiple skills: linguistic facility in Sanskrit, Bengali, and English; training in Catholic (and especially neo-Thomist) theology; and knowledge of Advaitic philosophy, Bengali colonial history, the development of Indian Christianity, and the modern controversies over indigenization. As this superb book amply testifies, Julius Lipner could not be more suited to the task. Brahmabandhab Upadhyay is one of the few books I know of in the study of colonial Bengal that combines historical research, minute documentation, and textual analysis with a clear interest in and sophisticated ability to convey Christian theological ideas.

One of the most refreshing aspects of the book is the way in which it skews the vision of events and personalities familiar to a student of Bengali history. For instance, Rammohan Ray, Ramakrsna, Vivekananda, Kesabcandra Sen, and Rabindranath Tagore, etc., are all brought in as foils and players in Brahmabandhab's story, not, as is usually the case, as heroes in their own rights. It is fascinating to read of Rammohan's emphasis on the Upanisads providing Brahmabandhab with a model for his eventual rehabilitation of Advaitic thought in a Christian context, of Ramakrishna failing to make much of an impression, of Brahmabandhab's perception of himself as Vivekananda's successor, and of Brahmabandhab's influence on Tagore. These human influences, as well as his increasing tendency in later life to turn to images of Kali and Krishna, prove just how Bengali Brahmabandhab really was. By introducing us to him, Lipner gives us a new perspective on the typical coordinates of Bengali cultural identity.

Even more significantly, Lipner's is a timely book. Against the backdrop of the religio-political climate in India today and Vajpayee's recent call for a "national debate on conversion," Brahmabandhab, a figure embodying the complexity of "the Indian Christian," deserves attention. Even though he has been a source of both embarrassment to and mis-understanding by Hindus and Christians alike, Lipner demonstrates forcefully that the issues with which Brahmabandhab grappled are still vitally important, and merit sustained study.

For instance, Brahmabandhab never considered his Christianity in any way as compromising his nationalism. For him, being Hindu was a matter of one's orientation in the world, and included caste, birth, and love of one's country (a prefiguring of the notion of "Hindutva" developed after the 1920s); being Christian, by contrast, was a matter of personal faith, and it strengthened his patriotic fervor.


Books on Upadhyay

  1. Sophia – A Monthly Catholic Journal, Vol. I-VI, 1894-1900

  2. Religious Views of Swami Brahmabandhav Upadhyaya: The first Indian Christian Theologian by Anil Mitra, SJ. 1970. St. Mary’s College, Darjeeling. (6B/407)

  3. The Twentieth Century Vol. I (Jan-Dec. 1901). Editors: N Gupta and Brahmabandhab Upadhya.

  4. Brahmabandhab Upadhyay, The life and thought of a Revolutionary by Julius J Lipner, OUP. Delhi. 1999 (6B/306)

  5. Writings of Brahmabandhab Upadhyay by Julius Lipner & George Gispert-Sauch, United Theological College, Bangalore. 2002. 2 volumes. 30B/257(1), (2)

  6. ‘Sanibarer Chiti’ (1961-64). 3 articles about Brahmabandhav Upadhyay in Bengali.

  7. Jote. Vol. 51. January 1947. No. 1

  8. An Indian Ashram: The Boys’ Own Home (Founded by Animananda) 1924. (38DB/114)

  9. Upadhyaya Brahmabandhav: The political years by C Fonseca, SJ (6B/191).

  10. Panchadasi – text, translation, commentary by B. Upadhyay.

  11. Samaj (Bengali) by Brahmabandhab Upadhyay. (6B/122).

  12. Blade: Life and work of Brahmabandhab Upadhyay by B. Animananda. Roy & Son. Calcutta. 1949 [511-UB-731a(A)] 2 copies

  13. Swami Upadhyay Brahmabandhav: A story of His life by B. Animananda. 1908? (6B/124)

  14. Infinite and the Finite by Upadhyaya Brahmabandhav: 3rd Edition 1918

  15. A Teacher of Genius B Animananda by P Turmes, SJ (2 copies). (6B/130). Xavier Publications. Calcutta. 1963.

  16. Short Treatise on the Existence of God by B C Banerji (Upadhyay Brahmabandhav), Karachi, 1893. (32H/2).

  17. Upadhyay Brahmabandhav- Miscellaneous articles by and on Upadhyay Brahmabandhav, in 5 volumes Titled Varia 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Languages: English & Bengali

  18. An Indian Nation Builder by Animananda (A biography on Brahmabandhav Upadhyay) revised in 1946. Rewachand Gyanchand (Animananda) was the pupil of Brahmabandhav Upadhyay. (6B/123)

  19. Transcription of an Autographed letter of Brahmabandhab Upadhyay to Fr. Billard and Lacombe, dated 10 Feb. 1898.

  20. Six large Folios (Preserved-Laminated and Encapsulated documents) containing articles, correspondence and writings by and pertaining to Brahmabandhab Upadhyay and Animananda.

  21. Time line of the life of Brahmabandhav Upadhyay (encapsulated) by Timothy C Tennent. University of Edinburgh. 1997.


Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) was the youngest son of Debendranath Tagore, a leader of the Brahmo Samaj, which was a new religious sect in nineteenth-century Bengal and which attempted a revival of the ultimate monistic basis of Hinduism as laid down in the Upanishads. He was educated at home; and although at seventeen he was sent to England for formal schooling, he did not finish his studies there. In his mature years, in addition to his many-sided literary activities, he managed the family estates, a project which brought him into close touch with common humanity and increased his interest in social reforms. He also started an experimental school at Shantiniketan where he tried his Upanishadic ideals of education. From time to time he participated in the Indian nationalist movement, though in his own non-sentimental and visionary way; and Gandhi, the political father of modern India, was his devoted friend. Tagore was knighted by the ruling British Government in 1915, but within a few years he resigned the honour as a protest against British policies in India.

Tagore had early success as a writer in his native Bengal. With his translations of some of his poems he became rapidly known in the West. In fact his fame attained a luminous height, taking him across continents on lecture tours and tours of friendship. For the world he became the voice of India's spiritual heritage; and for India, especially for Bengal, he became a great living institution.

Although Tagore wrote successfully in all literary genres, he was first of all a poet. Among his fifty and odd volumes of poetry are Manasi (1890) [The Ideal One], Sonar Tari (1894) [The Golden Boat], Gitanjali (1910) [Song Offerings], Gitimalya (1914) [Wreath of Songs], and Balaka (1916) [The Flight of Cranes]. The English renderings of his poetry, which include The Gardener (1913), Fruit-Gathering (1916), and The Fugitive (1921), do not generally correspond to particular volumes in the original Bengali; and in spite of its title, Gitanjali: Song Offerings (1912), the most acclaimed of them, contains poems from other works besides its namesake. Tagore's major plays are Raja (1910) [The King of the Dark Chamber], Dakghar (1912) [The Post Office], Achalayatan (1912) [The Immovable], Muktadhara (1922) [The Waterfall], and Raktakaravi (1926) [Red Oleanders]. He is the author of several volumes of short stories and a number of novels, among them are Gora (1910), Ghare-Baire (1916) [The Home and the World], and Yogayog (1929) [Crosscurrents]. Besides these, he wrote musical dramas, dance dramas, essays of all types, travel diaries, and two autobiographies, one in his middle years and the other shortly before his death in 1941. Tagore also left numerous drawings and paintings, and songs for which he wrote the music himself.

Rabindranath Tagore died on August 7, 1941.


Mother Teresa

Mother Teresa was born on August 26, 1910 and was given the name of Agnese Gonxhe Bojaxhiu. She was an Albanian Catholic nun who had Indian citizenship. She was responsible for founding the Missionaries of Charity in Kolkata in 1950. She spent more than 45 years of her life ministering to the sick, poor, orphaned, and the dying through the Missionaries of Charity. She began in India, but moved into other countries as well.

By 1970s, Mother Teresa had become famous for her work with the poor. She was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 and was given the highest honor for a civilian in India, the Bharat Ratna, due to her humanitarian work. Her Missionaries of Charity continued its expansion, and by the time she died, it was operating 610 missions in 123 countries, which included hospices and homes for people with leprosy, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, children's and family programs of counseling, soup kitchens, schools, and orphanages.

For her work, Mother Teresa has received both praise and criticism. Some of the criticisms include people and groups who disagree with her stance against abortion, her belief that there is a spiritual goodness about poverty, and the treatment of the dying. There were medical journals that have criticized her medical care treatment in her hospices and there have been concerns about how donated money has been spent. In 1996, Mother Teresa was given the title of Honorary Citizen of the United States by an Act of Congress.


Missionary Work

Her order began with only thirteen members all in Calcutta. Today it now has more than 4,000 nuns who run orphanages, AIDS hospices, as well as charity centers around the world. They care for the disabled, the blind, refugees, alcoholics, the aged, the homeless, the poor, and the victims of famine, epidemics, and floods.

In 1952, Mother Teresa opened the first Home for the Dying in the city of Calcutta. She converted a Hindu temple into a free hospice for the poor. It was renamed the Home of the Pure Heart. The people who were brought to the home were given medical attention and were able to have the chance to die with the dignity of their faith. She wanted people to die like angels so they would feel wanted and loved. Mother Teresa soon opened a home for people who were suffering from Hansen's disease, which is also known as leprosy. Her Missionaries of Charity also established a number of leprosy outreach clinics in order to provide food, bandages, and medication.

The Missionaries of Charity continued to take in bigger numbers of charitable donations, and by the time of the 1960s, orphanages, hospices, and leper houses had been opened in India. The order was expanded throughout the world. The first house that was opened out of India was in Venezuela in 1965 and had five sisters. More houses opened in Tanzania, Rome, and Austria in 1968, and in the 1970s, more houses and foundations were opened in dozens of countries in North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa.

Some of the criticism facing Mother Teresa was that she limited herself to assisting people to stay alive instead of tackling poverty. She also has been criticized for the way that she has handled suffering. It was her opinion that suffering would help people to get closer to Jesus. The quality of care that was offered to ill patients has been criticized for reported reuse of hypodermic needles, poor living conditions, cold baths for patients, and a lack of medical knowledge of volunteers who made decisions about care for patients. It was also said that her order did not distinguish between people who were dying and curable, so people who could have survived with treatment were dying from lack of treatment and infections.

In 1982, Mother Teresa rescued 37 children who were trapped in a hospital that had a temporary cease-fire between the Israeli army and the guerrillas of Palestine. With the Red Cross workers, she traveled through the war zone and to the young patients, evacuating them safely. Previously, Communist countries had rejected her Missionaries of Charity, but now her efforts were expanded to some of these countries. She helped victims of the earthquake in Armenia, radiation victims in Chernobyl, and the hungry of Ethiopia. In 1991, Mother Teresa returned to Albania for the first time and opened a Missionaries of Charity Brothers home located in Tirana, Albania.

By 1996, Mother Teresa was now opening 517 missions, and they were located in more than 100 different countries around the world. It had grown from twelve to thousands who were serving the poorest people in the world in 450 centers in the world. The first Missionaries of Charity home in the United States of America began in New York in the South Bronx. The order operated 19 more establishments around the country. Some have criticized Mother Teresa for using donated money to open new convents and increase missionary work rather than on improving the conditions of the hospices or helping to end poverty.

In 1983, Mother Teresa had a heart attack in Rome while she was visiting Pope John Paul II. She had a second attack in 1989, and she was given an artificial pacemaker. She had pneumonia in 1991, and she had more heart problems. She thought she would resign as the head of the Missionaries of Charity, but the nuns decided to have a secret ballot, and they voted for her to stay instead, so Mother Teresa agreed to keep working as the head. However, in 1996, Mother Teresa fell and broke her collar bone. She had malaria in August and had a failure of her left heart ventricle. Even though she had heart surgery, it was becoming clear that Mother Teresa's health was failing. She became ill and decided to be treated at a well-equipped hospital located in California rather than being treated in one of her own clinics.

On March 13, 1997, Mother Teresa stepped down as the leader of the Missionaries of Charity. She passed away on September 5, 1997. When she died, her Missionaries of Charity had more than 4,000 sisters and a brotherhood of 300 members. They were able to operate 610 missions in 123 different countries. This included hospices as well as homes for people who had HIV/AIDS tuberculosis, and leprosy, as well as soup kitchens, counseling programs for children and families, schools, orphanages, and personal helpers. They were also supported by Co-Workers, who included over a million people by the 1990s.


Forth coming events of the LIbrary

  1. An Exhibition of Maps and Plates will be held in the month of July. Display of Daniells’ Paintings, Black & White paints of Fraser’s Calcutta and many other paintings will be displayed. All are welcome to the exhibition.

  2. A new Goethals Directory with the list of all the books with details will be published by the library. The Work is in progress.


Archives of the Calcutta Province of the Society of Jesus Confidential Letters of Mother Teresa (in the original) on the Foundation of the M. C. Congregation.

Spiritual letters to Cardinal L.T. Picachy, SJ

Xerox copies of the same are available in the Calcutta Province Archives.

Consultation of these confidential documents should be done only on the Xerox copies with Fr. Provincial’s permission.

The originals are stored at the Goethals Library

New Books in the Library

Beyond Borders : A Global Perspective of Jesuit Mission History, Ed. By Shinzo Kawamura and Cyril Veliath, Sophia University Press, Tokyo, 2009.

Bibliography of Christians of Bengal, 1715-1991 A.D. Comp. and Ed. By Boniface Subrata Gomes, Pratibeshi Prakashani, Dhaka, 2009.

Business of Freedom, by Sandeep Singh, Ed. By Ratan Sharda, Vishwa Adhyayan Kendra, Mumbai, 2008.

Emergence of New Social Structure in Jalpaiguri District (1865-1947), by Shesadri Prosad Bose, Readers Service, Kolkata, 2008.

History of The 'Bengal' Mission 1859 to 1920, by Henri Josson, Tr. By A. Huart, SJ and L. Clarysse, Gujarat Sahitya Prakash, Gujarat, 2009.

Jeanne Jugan: Humble So As To Love More, By Paul Milcent Tr. By Alan Neame, Darton, Longman and Todd Ltd, Great Britain, 2000.

Lung Cancer Update – 2009, Ed. By A. K. Dewan, Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute & Research Centre, Delhi, 2009.

NGOs in the Human Right Movement, by Kaushlendra Mishra, Navyug Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, 2008.

Ramakrishna And Christ, By Hans Torwesten, Tr. By John Phillips, The Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture, Culcutta, 1999.

Sannyasi And Fakir Raiders in Bengal, by Rai Sahib Jamini Mohan Ghosh, Punthi Pustak, Kolkata, 2010.

That is an Art : Sketches of an Artist, by Bidyarthi Dutta, Pijushalok, Kolkata, 2009.

Vedic River Saravati And Hindu Civilization, Ed. By S. Kalya-naraman, Aryan Books International, New Delhi, 2008.

White & Black: Journey to the centre of Imperial Calcutta, By Soumitra Das, Niyogi Books, New Delhi, 2009.


Researchers at the Goethals

Ariktam Chatterjee on Bible Translation in Bengali: 1800 – Present, Kolkata
Christina Mirza on Mutiny, Kolkata
Dominic J Azavedo on The Herald from 1968 onwards, Kolkata
G. M. Kapur on Calcutta Heritage, Kolkata
Gopal Krishna Bhagat on Calcutta Heritage, Kolkata
Ms. Indrani Dasgupta, Kolkata, on The Herald 100 years back.
Ranjan Bandyopadhyay on Dr. Murray Mitchell, Hooghly
Roma Bhagat on Maps of Calcutta, Kolkata
Subir Ghosh on Brahmabandhab Upadhyay, Kolkata


Mails & Emails

I eagerly wait for the issues of "Goethals News". Every issue is a store of knowledge and information. I was so touched and thrilled to read the article by Fr. Julian Das, which has included my remarks made during the Bengal Jesuit Mission’s 150th year celebration.
Naresh Gupta, Secretary, Jesuit Alumni Associations of India.

The library is extremely beneficial for students and researchers with a focus on Comparative Religion, Christian and Church history in India and the History of Christian Missions.

Ariktam Chatterjee, Kolkata


Goethals Indian Library & Research Society, St. Xavier’s, 30 Mother Teresa Sarani, Kolkata-700 016, India.
Tel: 0091-33-2280 1919; email: goethals@vsnl.com  Web-site: www.goethals.in 
Director: Dr. Fr. Felix Raj, SJ; Staff: Mr. Sunil Mondol and Debu Mondal.



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